It is a National Archaeological Park located toward the east of Qosqo City; covering a territory of about 2200 hectares (5436 acres) in the Oropesa district, province of Quispicanchis. In order to get the main archaeological monument there is a 5 Km. (3 mile) dusty road from kilometer 18 (mile 11.2) of the road Cusco-Puno, towards the north and crossing the "Watanay" rivulet. A half kilometer away from the paved road is the small village of Tipón where an extraordinary colonial abode stands out. The abode is part of the Qespikancha hamlet that was property of the De San Lorenzo de Valle Umbroso Marquises (1650 -1802).

tipon hidrologial lab

It is without any doubt, the most important countryside monument inherited from colonial times but nowadays is completely abandoned. The original Quechua name of the whole Park is lost, and today it has diverse groups, standing out the sector where some Inkan "royal inclosures" are found. According to Victor Angles those inclosures were made built by Inka Wiraqocha as a dwelling and refuge for his father Yawar Wakaq after his flight in the war against the Chankas. That group is found in a slight and warm ravine at an altitude of 3500 mts. (11480 Ft.). Besides, the terracing found over here is very impressive, it contains 12 very fertile terraces that are still cultivated, and their retaining walls were built with well carved stones. Even more impressive is the irrigation system that is still serving agriculture and was made taking advantage of the water spring existing in the spot. It has carved stone channels, precisely calculated and sometimes with almost vertical falls that all together constitute a hydraulic engineering master work. Likewise, there are some fountains that must had ceremonial duties.

water source


It constitutes a National Archaeological Park, including many other surrounding archaeological sites. It covers an area of 3421 hectares (8453 acres), and is located in the Quispicanchis province, toward the east of Qosqo City and about 32 Kms. (20 miles) away by the present-day paved road leading to Puno and Arequipa. It contains a territory in the districts of Oropeza, Lucre and Andahuaylillas, near the Wakarpay lagoon that is at an altitude of about 3200 mts. (10500 Ft.). In the Peruvian Andes there are about 12000 small lakes like Wakarpay, almost all of them with very rich flora and fauna; they normally have a lot of totora reeds that is the environment for wild ducks of diverse species, geese, flamingoes, etc. and fish among which trout and king-fish stand out.

"Pikillaqta" is a compound Quechua word meaning "lousy town" (piki = louse; llaqta = town); however, that is not the original name of the zone or the main site. Today, its Inkan and previous names are unknown; though, when referring to this zone or the lagoon many chroniclers insinuate the names "Muyuna" (curve or turn), "Muyna" or "Mohina". It seems that the site began being called "Pikillaqta" since the last years of the colonial epoch or by the beginning of the republic; its reason is unknown.


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